Category Archives: Technology

Evolvement of Quantum dot Light Emitting Diode (QLED) Technology: An Overview

Television is amongst many other technologies which evolved rapidly in 20th century as a result of market competition. Currently, this evolution has landed from huge boxes to flat screens with high definition display, which give more colorful experience than reality itself.

It was late before 1940s when people enjoyed Black and White Television, which worked merely on the basis of white phosphor coated screen which represented an image, when an electron beam painted that image on it resulting into a black and white image. Later on, CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) Technology for generation of colored images in television came up with three electron beams one for each additive primary color (red, green, and blue).

As technology evolved, Plasma Technology came into existence in televisions, which consists of tiny cells coated inside with phosphor which were then coated to the interior of a glass tube, which was filled up with a gas. Once current flows through the gas and the gas atoms bombard on cells, there occurs generation of ultraviolet light, ultimately generating an image on screen. This ultimately reduced the size, as the cathode tube is absent in this case.

Further Evolution of LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) Technology came into existence in televisions, which utilizes a backlight source to illuminate, which includes CCFL(Cold Cathode Fluorescence Lamps), etc. as this technology doesn’t include electron beams like CRT and these are much thinner than Plasma television and are available in variety of sizes.

Advancement in technology led to utilization of LED (Light Emitting Diode) as a backlight source for the display. In case of LCD, where the backlight needed to be blocked in order to represent a darker zone in display, LED provided a facility wherein the light can be dimmed (LED can be manufactured in very small sizes). LED television are of two types white and RGB, where white uses white CCFL and RGB utilizes three colors(red, green, blue).

In recent times market has flushed with OLED  (Organic Light Emitting Diode) technology televisions, which refers to Organic Light Emitting Diode Technology which utilizes Organic Semiconductors, to create a digital display on activation by two electrodes, one of which is transparent.

Currently market is hit by a newer technology utilizing Quantum Dots or Semi-conductor nanocrystals called as QLED (quantum dot light emitting diode) Technology. QLED TV offers high and dynamic brightness levels, best viewing angle and produces more colours than any LED TV. QLED is supposed to be a so-called emissive technology. QLED basically means quantum dot technology + LED = QLED. QLED technology utilizes a quantum dots as a light source or light emitting device. Quantum dots are very small semiconductor particles, only several nanometers in size, so small that their optical and electronic properties differ from those of larger particles. The quantum dots are really tiny particles that, when hit with light, can deliver extremely high-intensity light means basically quantum dots may emit light, or just convert it. QLEDs are characterized by pure and saturated emission colors with narrow bandwidth. Quantum dots are tiny, and their size determines their color. LED TVs with quantum dots such as cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanocrystals, considered as “QLED” use BLU (Back-Light Unit) and produce enhanced colors utilizing quantum dots. The quantum dots can be used as a tube adjacent to the LEDs or in a sheet of film. QLED TV technology utilizes quantum dot with LED display. The quantum dot can be utilized to experience extremely bright and intensely dark colors on the QLED TV, just as real life. QLED TV technology places a layer or film of quantum dots in front of a regular LED backlight panel. The layer or film is made up of quantum dots which are tiny particle seach of which emit its own individual color depending on its size (anywhere between 2 and 10 nanometers). In QLED TV quantum dots are arranged between the display and the LED lights i.e. behind the display and in front of the LED. When the quantum dot is struck by light, it glows with a very specific colour.

Conventional LCD TV mostly utilizes LED which emits white light butQLED TV can utilize any color, like blue LED which can emit blue light. A blue LED light emits the blue hues. When blue LED emits the blue hues then the different sized quantum dot emits different colors such as red, green, etc based on size of quantum. The quantum dot can have different size and each size producing a different hue to turn light into perfect expressions of color. For example, when a blue LED light is struck on the quantum dot which has 5 nm diameters, then that quantum dot will emit red hue to express red colour and likewise, different size quantum dots emit different hue to express different colors while producing a picture.

Recently Samsung has come up with QLED TV quantum dot technology paired with (high dynamic range) HDR technology to reproduce a greater dynamic range of luminosity with standard digital imaging or photographic techniques for experiencing full spectrum of real-life hues and clarity. Samsung has paired this QLED technology with precision black technology which automatically adjusts the brightness of every scene accordingly, in their QLED TV series. In QLED TV the quantum dot technology helps in experiencing true or real colour as real life event and HDR technology assists in expressing greater dynamic range of luminosity from any angle.

Samsung has recently filed a Patent application (application no. WO2017018713A1) on QLED technology which talks about a display apparatus and a display method, which consists of fixed number of light emitting elements and a controller to monitor and control the light emission of these elements as per the requirement of the display. Samsung filed Another Patent application (application no. WO2016175541A1), which describes presence of liquid crystal panel in the display, associated purpose and utilization of quantum dots as color filter in between polarizing components of liquid crystal panel. The quantum dots are adapted to filter light of preset colors.





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Ms. Shubhangi Dhakane, Patent Associate at Khurana & Khurana Advocates and IP Attorneys, along with Ms. Shalini Patil, Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani (Rajasthan), intern at Khurana & Khurana  and can be reached at:


Edible Water Bottle/Container: Technological Perspective

A bottle or container which is made of plastic, glass, or metal for holding drinking water is well known in the art but a bottle or container which is consumable along with of water, liquids or other beverages sounds very interesting and unbelievable, isn’t it?

Conventionally known, bottles can be made of plastic, glass, material but the main difference between each type of bottle is the flexibility of the material. In the past, bottles were used for storing drinking water and other beverages over the advantage of being durable, lightweight, and easy to carry. However, the common and convenient practice of drinking water and other beverages from plastic bottles comes with problems. About 50 billion plastic water bottles made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are produced in the United States each year, and most are discarded. Polyesters like PET can be broken down through hydrolytic degradation and the ester linkage can be cut by a water molecule, but this reaction proceed differently in case of acidic or alcoholic condition under temperature 200-300 °C. Based on this PET is considered asnon-biodegradable material which will take more time to decompose such as 450 years. According to the National Association for PET Container Resources, the recycling rate for PET has held steady at 31% since 2013. Using plastic bottles also produces negative effects on health and environment also.Plastic drinking bottles contain many chemicals, which are harmful to human and animals body.Even though plastic drinking bottles are recyclable, most end up in landfills or as litter.According to National Geographic Kids survey, only one plastic bottle recycled out of every six plastic bottles. Therefore there exists a need to use a renewable, bio-degradable, eco-friendly, reusable packaging materials for liquids which may be consumable along with the liquids thereby avoiding need for throwing used packaging around creating and increasing different types of pollutions.

With the advancement in the technology, researchers have now come up with an edible water bottle (water ball) which has capability to set an end to plastic packaging requirements. A water ball is new way of packaging a liquid, say water, that proposes an alternative to the plastic bottle. Te sociality of water ball is that it’s consumable or chewable. Yes, you read it right, the edible or consumable or chewable water bottle is a blob or drop-like water container which is made from sodium alginate gel. The biodegradable blob is created to make a more environmentally friendly alternative to plastic bottles. The water ball encloses a small volume of water in a membrane which is made from brown algae and calcium chloride.

The water ball is prepared by dropping ice (frozen liquid) into separate solutions of calcium chloride and brown algae and membrane form around it. This process is called as spherification process. The technique of spherification, of shaping a liquid into spheres which visually and texturally resemble caviar born in 1946 is disclosed in US Patent 2403547. Using the culinary technique of spherification, the water is enclosed in a double jellylike membrane. The technique consists into apply sodium alginate (E-401) which is natural product of the brown algae and calcium chloride (E-509) in a concrete proportions in order to generate a gelification on the peripheral of the liquid.Calcium deposited on the membrane creates hardened membrane, and hard shell in the manner of an egg shell.The final package is simple, cheap resistant, hygienic, biodegradable and even eatable. The edible water ball is tasteless, although flavors can be added to it.

Recently, Skipping Rocks Lab has actually implemented this concept and come up with a bio-degradable, edible water bottle (water ball) and the ball is named as “Ooho“. The water ball is a spherical packaging made of seaweed, entirely natural and biodegradable. The edible container can be consumed directly. A layer of edible container can be unwrapped off to keep the peripheral clean for consumption. The water ball will replace millions of plastic bottles thrown away every year.

Further to it, Le Labogroup SAS has filed a patent application (EP 2759212 A1) on an edible water bottle technology which talks about edible or potable substances which can be transported in biodegradable vessel. The technique for preparation of water ball consists a process in which a frozen liquid is dipped into separate solutions of calcium chloride and brown algae and membrane form around it.






Shubhangi Dhakane, Patent Associate at Khurana & Khurana, Advocates and IP Attorneys who can be reached at

Hidden Figures: Panasonics’s Invisible Television

Entertainment has had various developmental dimensions in each decade. From sitting under the sky and watching plays in person, to the same developing as a career. Then we evolved the idea of television, channelizing frequencies to look at people on a screen. Being black and white initially, we have seen added colours, LCD and LED screens, touch screens, Smart TV, HD quality, sleek displays, flat-screens, plasmas, flexible and curved screens and what not. From a mere mode of amusement and leisure, it has become a dominant accessory of our living rooms or bedrooms. A plethora of developments have taken place in the Television industry, but a major development was triggered by Panasonic’s out of the box thinking (quite literally) and has made the box vanish completely! It has come up with its next big thing: the Invisible Television.

Technology involved:

The invisible TV, in its current form, is composed of OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diodes). It is a flat light emitting technology made with a series of organic thin films placed between two conductors, and they work when electricity is applied through them, and a bright light is emitted. It is organic because it is made of carbon and hydrogen, and no bad metals.

Composition of OLED:


The basic structure of an OLED is an emissive layer sandwiched between a cathode (which injects electrons) and an anode (which removes electrons). More layers may be used in modern devices for efficiency and durability, but the fundamental functionality remains the same. An OLED panel is made from a substrate, backplane (electronics – the driver), the frontplane (organic materials and electrodes), and an encapsulation layer. Due to high sensitivity of OLEDs to oxygen and moisture, therefore the encapsulation layer is critical. It does not require backlight and filters, unlike LCD displays, and is much thinner.

Is it real?

Most definitely it is. Panasonic’s display of the prototype of its invisible TV in the Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in Las Vegas, Nevada recently has become a rage in the whole world. It’s like a plain glass pane, you can see through it, and it’ll camouflage in whichever room you place it. Installation in showcases would justify its presence, or absence if you may. It can be operated by a remote control or hand gestures or voice commands. An OLED TV is made from millions of pixels, each made from red, green and blue tiny OLED materials.

How it works?

Since it is a transparent television, all elements used in it are transparent: cathode, anode and substrate. The best part of OLED pixels is that they do not need a separate backlight. They are self-illuminating, and are turned on when electricity is supplied through them. It is made up of layers of OLED pixels sandwiched between two glass substrates (cathode and anode). It requires minimal electricity to run, thereby making it a power saver. The panel can be incredibly thin due to the low electricity requirement, making it practically invisible.  When the panel is on, these self-illuminating pictures produce a picture, and when the screen is off, the components go back to transparency.

Existing technology:

The current technologies used in televisions are many: HDTV, LED, LCD, etc. OLED is also being used in TVs and mobile phones. The awakening of the LED technology has outsmarted every other technology used in the making of TV. The TVs manufactured by the use of this technology cover a very wide price range. Although OLED is comparatively expensive, but is predicted to be cheaper in future considering its simplicity. But the invisible television developed by Panasonic is something absolutely new and attractive.


OLED displays have certain advantages over LCD displays. They are as under:

  • Image quality- Improved: better contrast, higher brightness, fuller viewing angle, a wider color range and much faster refresh rates.
  • Power consumption- Lower.
  • Design- Simple: enables ultra thin, flexible and transparent displays.
  • Durability- Better: can operate under a broader temperature range.
  • Green Scheme: uses carbon and hydrogen, and no bad metals.
  • Weight and width: lighter and thinner.
  • Viewing Angle- Better: almost 170-180 degrees.


Despite reaching this stupendous pedestal, some things are still holding us back.

  • Costs: Initially it may be ranged on the higher end of costs, due to low production capacity, which hopefully may change in near future.
  • Damage: It may be prone to getting easily damaged by water and direct sunlight.
  • Lifetime: red and green OLED films have a longer lifetime, but the blue ones have a shorter span.


The invisible TV is ahead of its time, and if launched in the market, it will have a fair batch of potential buyers. This technology would indeed be very well used for uplifting the economy. For instance, it can be used for hospitals for enhancing and simplifying the processes and equipments. X-rays, scans, etc will be extremely elementary and faster. When applied for schooling purposes, it can help children learn better. It will definitely make life easier if absorbed properly by the hospitals and schools due to the sleek design and less weight. If made portable, in small sizes for efficacy of work in the fields, the economy will prosper excessively.  Hence, this invention is being counted upon for a lot of things it can do.


Ms. Aditi Tiwari, an intern at Khurana and Khurana, Advocates and IP Attorneys. Views expressed in this article are solely of the intern and do not reflect the views of either of any of the employees or employers.

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