Tag Archives: Linezolid

Division Bench of Delhi High Court passed an interim order in Glenmark v. Symed (July 2015)

The High Court of Delhi has passed an interim order wherein the  Justices have made it clear that the appellant (Glenmark) may use any other process which may be a development of Glenmark process / Upjohn process so long as it does not infringe the patented processes of the respondent (Symed).

Background:

Symed Laboratories Ltd. is an Indian bulk drug manufacturer based in Hyderabad. Among other drug products, it manufactures Linezolid, an antibacterial used to treat skin and blood infection including pneumonia. Symed owns two process patents (IN213062 and IN213063) for the manufacture of intermediates for linezolid. The product patent for the drug is owned by Pfizer. Symed has sued a number of Indian manufacturers of Linezolid for patent infringement including Glenmark, Optimus Pharma, Alkem Laboratories Limited (Symed has now entered into a settlement with Alkem), Mankind Pharma Limited and Sharon Bio-Medicine Ltd.

The Delhi High Court had granted an ad interim injunction on 19 January 2015 restraining the Defendants, through their officers, directors, agents and distributors from manufacturing, selling, offering for sale, advertising or directly or indirectly dealing in the production of Linezolid manufactured in a manner so as to result in infringement of the Symed’s registered Patents IN213062 and IN213063 till the disposal of the suit.

The grant of interim injunction had been predicated on four criteria:

  • That there is a prima facie case in favour of the plaintiff;
  • That the plaintiff is likely to suffer an irreparable injury if the defendant is not restrained;
  • That the balance of convenience lies in favour of the plaintiff; and
  • That public interest would not be dis-serviced by the grant of the injunction.

However, the injunction against Glenmark was vacated by the Delhi High Court consisting of Justice Badar Durrez Ahmed and Justice Sanjeev Sachdeva within 2 weeks of the Single Judge’s decision. The other defendants in this case have not been as lucky and continue to suffer the injunction.

While setting aside the January 19 order, the court noted: “It was incumbent upon the single judge to prima facie come to a finding that the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of both Glenmark and Symed were identical.”

“This (prima facie finding) does not appear to have been done. In these circumstances, we are vacating the interim order and modifying the same by directing appellant (Glenmark) to maintain accounts and file same in court..,” the Bench said and listed the matter for further hearing on 16 March 2015.

It was also noted by the Court that the single judge did not go into the point regarding applicability of section 104A of the Patents Act 1970 as per which in suits alleging infringement of process patents, the defendant (Glenmark) has to prove that its process is different from that of the plaintiff.

Symed Labs Ltd. vs Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Ltd. on 17 July 2015

In the very recent decision, the Delhi High Court has ordered that Glenmark shall use its process which is virtually identical to the Ujohn process as indicated in the expert report of Prof. Steven W. Baldwin (filed by Glenmark). The Court noted that the expert report indicates that the appellant (Glenmark) process and the Uphohn process are different from the process of preparation of Linezolid, which is employed by the respondent (Symed).

It has been agreed by both the parties that the appellant (Glenmark) shall manufacture Lineolid through its process indicated in the expert report which does not infringe upon the patented process of Symed as indicated in the report. The learned counsel for the respondent (Symed) has accepted the report to the extent that the process shown as the Glenmark process which is virtually identical to the Upjohn process does not infringe the patented process of Symed for production of Linezolid. The learned counsel for the appellant has also stated that they have not and shall not use the patented process of Symed numbered as IN213062 and IN213063.

Paragraph 24 of the report of Prof. Stephen W. Baldwin reads as under:

24. The two claimed intermediate compounds discussed above (PHPFMA and CHFA) do not appear in the Glenmark process for making Linezolid. Moreover, the reaction conditions involved in the various Glenmark process steps would not produce either of these claimed comounds, even as trace inpurities

[CHFA (N-[3-Chloro-2-(R)-hydroxprophy1]-3-fluoro-4-morpholinyl-anlaniline) : PHPFMA (N-3 [Phthalimido-2-(R)-hydroxprophyl]-3-fluoro-4 (morpholinyl) aniline]

While both the parties have accepted the above extracted paragraph No.24 of the report, the Justices have made it clear that the appellant (Glenmark) may use any other process which may be a development of Glenmark process / Upjohn process so long as it does not infringe the said patented processes of the respondent.

Dr. Singhvi, the learned senior Advocate stated on behalf of appellant (Glenmark) that the appellant has already been and will continue to take declarations from sellers of Linezolid to the effect that the seller does not violate anybody’s registered patent and will also in future specify in the declaration b the seller that he does not violate Symed’s aforesaid two patented processed, adding that in the event the respondent initiates legal proceedings against a seller for infringement of the aforesaid two patents, the appellant, on a request being made, would supply the aforementioned declaration.

About the Author: Antony David, Senior Patent Associate at Khurana & Khurana, Advocates and IP Attorneys and can be reached at: antony@khuranaandkhurana.com

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Recent Patent Litigation Cases (2014-15): India

Patent Litigation in India has steadily increased over last 2-3 years. Dramatic swift has been observed in the innovator’s perspective from the mere aspect of invention to gaining patent protection for their respective invention. Patent owners have adopted aggressive approach towards their patent protection and enforcing their proprietary rights as businesses, are now well-positioned in the realm of patent litigation.  The patent owners are not at all hesitant to challenge the validity of patent rights of their rivals. There has also been gradual increase in the understanding of the complex patent infringement and validity issues.

We will now deal with some of the recent and important patent litigation cases in India.

Merck vs. Glenmark over “Sitagliptin”

In an interesting note, Hon’ble Supreme Court of India on Special Leave Petition filed by Glenmark stayed the Delhi High Court order which passed injunction against Glenmark for the generic drug Sitagliptin till 28th April 2015. Merck Sharp & Dohme filed an application for an ad interim injunction restraining the respondent/defendant Glenmark Pharmaceuticals from using its patented product Sitagliptin (Indian Patent No. 209816) at the Supreme Court. The Delhi high court conclusively held that all the three ingredients (Prima facie, Irreparable injury and balance of convenience) for passing the order of injunction were established by MSD and hence injuncted Glenmark from manufacturing and selling of Zita and Zitamet.

Ericsson vs. Xiaomi

In December 2014, Ericsson had filed a suit against Xiaomi in India for the alleged infringement of the 8 standard-essential patents. The Delhi High Court granted an ex-parte injunction on the sale, manufacture, advertisement, and import of Xiaomi’s devices.

Xiaomi claimed that its latest devices in the Indian market (as of December 2014), the Mi3, Redmi1S and Redmi Note 4G, contained Qualcomm chipsets, which implemented technologies licensed by Ericsson. Xiaomi subsequently challenged the injunction before a Division Bench of the Delhi High Court, which issued temporary orders to allow Xiaomi to resume the sale, import, manufacture, and advertisement of its mobile devices subject to the following conditions:

  • Xiaomi would only sell devices having Qualcomm chips.
  • Xiaomi would deposit Rs. 100 towards royalty for every device it imported to India from the date of the launch of the device in India toJanuary 5, 2015. This amount was to be kept in a fixed deposit for three months during the proceeding of the case.

Novartis vs. Cipla

In another patent litigation case, Delhi High court barred Indian generic drugmaker Cipla from making or selling generic copy of Novartis’s “Onbrez” by giving temporary injunction to Novartis. Citing famous Roche vs Cipla case, the court observed that Novartis has a strong prima facia case and as the validity of the patent is not seriously questioned, there is a clear way out to grant injunction. Further, the court observed that Cipla did not provide any figures about the “inadequacy or shortfall in the supply of the drug.” Earlier Cipla lunched its generic version of Indacarterol in October claiming “urgent unmet need” for the drug in india.

Without going conventional way, Cipla, also approached the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) to exercise its statutory powers under Section 66 and Section 92 (3) to revoke Indian Patents IN222346, IN230049, IN210047, IN230312 and IN214320 granted to Novartis AG for the drug Indacaterol. Cipla argued on the basis of 3 main points i.e. “epidemic” or a “public health crisis” of COPD, unable to manufacture the same in India by Patentee and high cost of patented drug.

Vringo Vs. ZTE

In January 2014, Vringo and Vringo Infrastructure filed a patent infringement suit in the Delhi High Court against ZTE, over the alleged infringement of its patent IN200572.

In February 2014, the Delhi High court granted an ad-interim ex-parte injunction restraining ZTE from importing, selling, advertising, installing or operating devices that comprise the infringing components. The High court also appointed local commissioners to inspect ZTE’s premises and instructed customs authorities to detain ZTE’s shipments that may contain such devices and to notify Vringo. In March 2014, ZTE appealed against the injunction, which was vacated on August 5 the same year with ZTE being ordered to deposit Rs. 17.85 crore to the court.

The suit is sub judice now. As of August 2014, ZTE had filed for the revocation of IN200572 on grounds of it not being innovative as well as for violating some statutory provisions under Section 64 of the Indian Patents Act.

Reference: http://inpublic.globenewswire.com/2014/09/02/VRINGO+PROVIDES+UPDATE+TO+SHAREHOLDERS+HUG1853040.html

Vringo vs. Asus

In April 2014, Vringo filed a patent infringement suit against AsusTek Computer Inc. in Delhi High Court. As per public updates issued by Vringo to its shareholders, Vringo has alleged the infringement of patent IN223183 entitled “Method and system for providing wireless communication using a context for message compression” by Asus in India.

Asus had claimed that in the context of IN 223183 it was using technology licensed to it by Google. In August 2014, Google filed a request to become a party to the proceedings.

Vringo had requested for an injunction on Asus’ use of the technology in India. The injunction has not been granted yet. No further information about the lawsuit is publicly available.

Reference: http://inpublic.globenewswire.com/2014/09/02/VRINGO+PROVIDES+UPDATE+TO+SHAREHOLDERS+HUG1853040.html

SYMED Labs vs. Glenmark Pharmaceuticals

In another case of SYMED Labs vs. Glenmark Pharmaceuticals, Symed Labs Ltd. had sued Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Laboratories before the Delhi High Court for allegedly infringing two of its patents: IN213062 & 213063. First patent was granted for “Novel intermediates for Linezolid and related compounds” while the ‘063 patent was granted for “A novel process for the preparation of linezolid and related compounds. While declaring the judgment on 9th Jan 2015, the judge convinced that the Plaintiff has got good prima facie case in favour of SYMED. Further the judge decided that protection to the patent processes ought to be granted to the Plaintiff as damages will not be an efficacious remedy. Thus, there will be irreparable loss and injury because of the long uninterrupted use of patents, the balance of convenience also lies in favour of the Plaintiff. Thus the judge granted an ad interim injunction restraining Glenmark from manufacturing, selling, offering for sale, advertising or directly or indirectly dealing in the production of Linezolid manufactured in a manner so as to result in infringement of the Plaintiff’s registered Patents.

Maj. (Retd.) Sukesh Behl & Anr. vs Koninklijke Phillips

In this litigation case, Sukesh Behl made a counter claim for revocation of the suit Patent No. 218255 under Section 64(1)(m) of the Patents Act, 1970 (for short “the Patents Act”) for non-compliance of the provisions of Section 8. Earlier in another suit Koninklijke Phillips sought for permanent injunction restraining Sukesh Behl from infringing its patent and for other incidental reliefs. While delivering the judgement, the judge answered the question of whether the failure to comply with the requirement of Section 8 of the Patents Act would invariably lead to the revocation of the suit patent under Section 64(1)(m) of the Patents Act, the word “may” employed in Section 64(1) indicates that the provision is directory and raises a presumption that the power of revocation of patents conferred under Section 64(1) is discretionary. Citing Chemtura case, the judge hold that the power to revoke a patent under Section 64(1) is discretionary and consequently it is necessary for the Court to consider the question as to whether the omission on the part of the plaintiff was intentional or whether it was a mere clerical and bonafide error. Finally, the judge dismiss the plea of Sukesh Behl for revocation of said patent under section 64 (1)(m).

Enercon vs. Dr. Aloys Wobben

In this land mark decision, Hon’ble Supreme Court of India addressed the multiplicity of patent proceeding cases with respect to Invalidation, opposition and revocation. Dr.Aloys Wobben has filed around 19 infringement suits before the High Court and Enercon India Limited have filed around 23 “revocation petitions” before the Appellate Board, praying for the revocation of the patents held in the name of the Dr. Wobben. The respondents had also filed “counter claims” to the “patent infringement suits” filed by the appellant.  Even though some revocation petitions have been settled by the IPAB, the same issues were being re-agitated by Enercon before the High Court. The Supreme Court of India following rules – firstly, if “any person interested” has filed proceedings under Section 25(2) of the Patents Act, the same would eclipse all similar rights available to the very same person under Section 64(1) of the Patents Act. This would include the right to file a “revocation petition” in the capacity of “any person interested” (under Section 64(1) of the Patents Act), as also, the right to seek the revocation of a patent in the capacity of a defendant through a “counter-claim” (also under Section 64(1) of the Patents Act). Secondly, if a “revocation petition” is filed by “any person interested” in exercise of the liberty vested in him under Section 64(1) of the Patents Act, prior to the institution of an “infringement suit” against him, he would be disentitled in law from seeking the revocation of the patent (on the basis whereof an “infringement suit” has been filed against him) through a “counter-claim”.  Clearly, this judgement laid a smooth road for complex patent litigation practices in India.

It would be interesting to note the developments that would take place in the Patent protection scenario in India and the gradual increase in the patent litigation cases in India.

About the Author: Mr Sitanshu Singh, Patent Associate at Khurana & Khurana, Advocates and IP Attorneys and can be reached at:Sitanshu@khuranaandkhurana.com